Questions and Answers:
Please pay close attention to items highlighted and bolded in red. These highlighted items are important warnings/signs you need to know about your collie.
Q. How much food does
my puppy eat
A. We usually will feed a 1/4 - 1/3 cup
of NutriSource For Puppys, 3 times a day,
for a 8-12 week old puppy (10-20 lbs). Leave the
hard food out 24/7. Check to see how much is consumed and adjust
as the puppy matures. If you prefer to feed only canned food, NutriSource
does have an excellent canned dog food as well. Otherwise, if you prefer a hard dog food, then
we prefer that you would use the NutriSource
Dry Puppy/Dog Food.
Remember to order your NutriSource Premium Health
dog food before your Collie, arrives in your new
If you intend to switch to
something else: We would prefer
that you feed your puppy "NutriSource
Premium Health Food for Puppys/Dogs" for at least the
first few weeks after arrival in your home, to make
sure that he/she is eating well before switching. If you plan on
to a different brand then what we use, then switch
gradually, to prevent loose stools. Do not feed your puppy table scraps
as this can cause upset stomachs, not to mention
obesity, which is even more harmful long term. Do not feed your puppy
treats, or chocolate which can be harmful, and even
Always provide a fresh water supply - we like to add 2 tbl.
honey, or karo syrup to help prevent hypoglycemia
when the puppies are very young.
** Royalty Collies
believes SO strongly in these products that we offer a *Lifetime
Free Replacement Puppy* on all of our
Collies puppies/adults that are kept on the NutriSource Dog food AND NuVet Supplements
when they don't reach their life expectancy of 10-12 years.
is available in dry or canned puppy/dog food. If
you decide to take advantage of this offer and switch, these products
can be purchased at most local Pet Supply warehouses.
it is best to have your Dog Food "before"
your puppy arrives home.
Nu Vet Supplements:
NuVet Supplement order phone
number is: 1800-474-7044, and my representative ID #96785. For more information please click on the Nu Vet tab in the menu. This product is also listed in our *Lifetime
Free Replacement Puppy*
Free Replacement Puppy -
this does not include the vet check, cerf exam, shots,
worming, transportation, carrier, or travel kit fees. This
Health Guarantee is for the health of your Collie and does not cover accidental death, neglect,
or injuries that your dog may sustain while being a
part of your family. We believe that NutriSource Pet Foods
and NuVet Supplements are a great coombination to
provide your dog with optimal health, so that your Collie can live a long and happy life with your
family! This Lifetime
Free Replacement Puppy Health
Guarantee does transfer to new owners (if you are
unable to care for your dog), when no lapse in the use
of these products occurs.
Q. Is my deposit completely refundable if I change my mind on purchasing a puppy from an upcoming litter, or available
litter, after I have reserved it?
A. No. If you
change your mind after reserving a puppy, there will be a non-refundable
fee of at least 1/2 the amount of your puppy, up to
the full amount of your puppy, depending on when your cancellation
If you change your mind after your puppy reaches 6
weeks of age, your deposit is not refundable. If you had already
paid for transportation fees, and your puppy was
not shipped yet, these will be refunded to you. Your deposit is
completely transferable to a different puppy, if you decide
to wait for a future litter, due to circumstances in your family.
Please make sure you are looking for a puppy before
putting a deposit down on one. If you are a minor, I require the
to notify me that the purchase is approved. We have
placed certain policies in force within our business, to assist us in
placing our puppies into "forever" homes. If every
family was to place a deposit down on an upcoming litter, or
puppy, and then change their mind because "another
puppy came along sooner from somewhere else", "decided to
wait", (for examples), a lot of additional work is
then required to find new loving homes for the puppy(ies) left behind.
We plan our breeding's around families that are on
our wish lists. This is one of the reasons that I have a FAQ's page to
families before purchasing a puppy. Our desire is
for each family to be "sure about their decision, and committed to
their puppy" once deciding on purchasing one from
an upcoming litter, or one that is already available. Your deposit
is transferable to a different litter, if you
choose to wait for a different puppy at a later date.
How much should I exercise
A. A 6 month old pup is susceptible to
bone problems and injuries for another 12 months, until around 18
of age, and their joints are tender. Puppies’
bodies develop much faster than their bones. The growing weight that
as their body develops combined with the stress of
over-exercising can cause bone damage. Puppies are susceptible to joint
disorders and can develop health problems if they
are over-exercised. Young puppies (less then 6 months) tire quickly and
should be allowed to exercise at their own pace.
Do Collies require a lot of grooming?
A. The Collie coat
is beautiful if maintained properly. A quick brush
through every other day will help prevent mats and tangles. Once a week
you should go through the coat in detail, paying
special attention to the deep undercoat, underside, and hocks. The
is a beautiful, and majestic breed. If you are not
willing to spend a half hour each week to comb and brush out the coat
then perhaps the Collie is not the right breed for
Q. Is there a difference between temperament in males and
A. Collies are loyal, affectionate, and
make excellent companions. There is not a clear difference based on
gender alone. Collies, just like people, are
individuals and each one has it's own unique personality. Some people
mistaken perception that males are less
affectionate, and are more aggressive. I have not found this to be true.
extremely loving and affectionate. If the males are
neutered early, they usually will not lift their hind leg to pee –
Q. How long do Collies live?
The average lifespan is 8-12 years. Diet, exercise, rest,
companionship, nutrition, teeth cleaning, proper
vaccinations, and veterinarian care all play a key role in how long your
Collie will live.
Q. Are you able to transport your Collies anywhere in the U.S.A., Canada, or Int'l?
Yes, we regularly use the airlines and/or ground
transportation. Sometimes this is dependent upon the destination and/or
as to which way we will deliver your puppy. We
desire to provide the safest route possible, with the least amount of
for your new Collie. We also provide delivery
ourselves for a fee, and do meet families en-route on occasion.
A. The puppy is
required to be at least 8 weeks old.
Q. Is my deposit transferable if I should change my mind and want a different puppy?
A. Yes, the deposit is transferable
to any of our puppies/adult collies.
Yes, your deposit is completely refundable, or transferable to a different Collie.
A. No. If you
change your mind after reserving a puppy, there will be a $100.00
fee. Please make sure you are looking for a puppy
before putting a deposit down on one. If you are a minor, I require the
parents to notify me that the purchase is approved.
We have placed certain policies in force within our business, to assist
us in placing our puppies into "forever" homes. If
every family was to place a deposit down on an upcoming litter,
or puppy, and then change their mind because
"another puppy came along sooner from somewhere else", "decided
to wait", (for examples), a lot of additional work
is then required to find new loving homes for the puppy(ies) left
behind. We plan our breedings around families that
are on our wish lists. This is one of the reasons that I have a FAQ's
to assist families before purchasing a puppy. Our
desire is for each family to be "sure about their decision, and
to their puppy" once deciding on purchasing one
from an upcoming litter, or one that is already available.
A. We accept
cash, paypal, cashier's check, money orders, direct
into our checking account. Please make your checks payable to Jacquelyn Cary. . Email us
for our complete mailing address. We are located in Cedar, Minnesota.
A. Yes, we occasionally will make arrangements
to hold onto puppies/adults for longer periods of time; a small fee is involved.
Q. Is it safe to use
Ivermectin Wormers on Collies?
A. No... Ivermectin is not considered
safe for Collies by most breeders. Several studies
have shown a wider range of sensitivity in Collies then other breeds.
Large Roundworm, or Hookworm use Pyrantel Pamoate
which is safe for Collies. Also, because of several cases of toxicity in
Collies, stay away from Ivermectin products for
Heartworm prevention. Talk to your Vet about what is a safe Heartworm
Q. What is Hypoglycemia (low
A. Hypoglycemia simply means a low blood sugar,
and is a health risk that can affect puppies
between 5 and 16 weeks of age. Glucose is the form of sugar found within
bloodstream. Glucose is formed during the digestion
of foods and it can be stored within the liver in a storage form called
lycogen. Some instances of low blood sugar in the
puppy are the result of inadequate nutrition; either not enough, or poor
quality (undigestible) food. Excessive exercise may
also cause the body to use up more sugar than is available.
can recognize hypoglycemia by a healthy puppy
becoming weak, listless, unaware of surroundings, even unable to walk or
The puppy will appear limp and lifeless with the
gums and tongue usually grayish blue in color. Often the eyes are
and barely open. They may appear to be slightly
sunken in. Temperature will be sub-normal and the puppy will be
and trembling in the early stages. Advanced stages
include seizures before lapsing into coma, which is sometimes followed
by death. A puppy with hypoglycemia will lack
energy. Glucose (sugar) is the fuel the body burns for energy; without
puppy is listless. In severe instances the puppy
may even seizure since glucose is necessary for the brain tissue and
to function. These hypoglycemic episodes will cause
the puppy to fall over and appear weak or comatose.
be taken IMMEDIATELY to give the puppy honey or
karo syrup. Administer the honey or karo syrup by eyedropper, or if the
is too weak to take it , let the puppy lick it off
your clean fingers, or rub it on its tongue and gums. If the puppy does
not improve within 10 minutes, contact your vet
immediately! This is NOT something that can wait until the vet opens the
morning! I always recommend if you ever have any
concerns, questions, or worries don't hesitate to call your vet even if
puppy is doing better. Once a puppy's sugar level
drops, it is much more likely for him to have another episode. It can
WEEKS to build blood sugar levels back up
afterwards. Make sure your puppy is eating and drinking OFTEN.
how you do it, make the puppy take the honey or
syrup, IT'S LIFE DEPENDS ON IT!!! If you give your puppy honey or syrup
until it is 4 months old, you should not have a
problem with hypoglycemia. It only takes a few hours for a puppy to go
so do not forget to give it the honey or syrup
EVERYDAY. You should never let a puppy go more than 4 hours without
This could result in death and we will not be held
responsible for the death of a puppy due to negligence.
can occur WITHOUT warning, when a puppy is placed
into a new home, or while being shipped. It might appear after a puppy
a meal, chills, becomes exhausted from too much
playing, or has a digestive upset. These upsets place an added strain on
energy reserves of the liver and bring on symptoms.
Treatment is directed at restoring blood levels of glucose,
at once. If the puppy is awake give him Karo Syrup,
honey or sugar in water by mouth. He will begin to improve within 30
When he is unconscious, he will have to be given a
Dextrose solution intravenously. It may be necessary to treat for
of the brain. A veterinarian should be called at
There are a few ways to give it:
1. Mix 2 tablespoons of
honey with 1/2 cup of water each day and let the
puppy drink it throughout the day (must be fresh each day).
2. Mix 1
cup creamy peanut butter with 2 tablespoons honey.
Store in a closed container in the refrigerator. Take a dab with your
roll it into a ball and give it to the puppy. If
the puppy does not want to eat it, put the ball on the roof of its
It cannot spit it out. Be careful not to give to
large a ball that the puppy chokes. This is good for hypoglycemia and a
3. Mix Honey, Sugar, or Corn Syrup with
equal amounts of water and feed with a syringe, 10cc four times a day.
stress usually causing this condition is:
1. Over--handling young
puppies and not letting them get enough rest
2. A puppy refuses to eat for over a
period of 8 hours due to change of home and/or food.
to low room temperatures for a period of time or
sleeping in drafts.
Usually, the bowels will move without help, but
an older puppy may struggle to be supported erect
on his feet for elimination. Check carefully for urination as the pup is
in trouble if the kidneys cease to function. Wash
genital area with cotton soaked with warm water, if the puppy is
If partially mobile, put his feet on a towel at the
edge of a wash basin. Support him with one hand and turn the water on
in the basin. Hearing the running water usually
makes them urinate.
I add 1-2 tablespoons of honey or white karo
to their fresh drinking water everyday. Feed
several times a day. Leave dry food out 24/7. Never feed your puppy
fried foods or milk. Do not allow your puppy to
become over-chilled or tired. Let your puppy rest and become accustomed
his new home.
When hypoglycemia is caught in
time, there is no reason why a puppy won't come out of it and never have
it again if the stress factor is eliminated.
most outgrow this danger by 6 months of age.
is a CERF exam?
A. It is an eye exam done by an
Ophthalmologist to check for “Collie Eye Anomaly”.
Q. Are Normal
Eyed Collies rare?
A. Yes, there are very few Collie Breeders who
breed specifically for Normal Eyes,
or use Normal Eyed Collies in their breeding
program, which is very unfortunate. To learn more: These conditions are
Q. Other breeders I have contacted
downplay the importance of Normal Eyes and insist it is not a top
or very important, why is that?
A. I can only
guess, possibly because they don't have them, and do not want to invest
the time it takes to "perfect" the eyes and obtain
consistent "Normal Eye" results. There are only a handful
of breeders in the United States that are breeding
for Normal Eyes and to produce Normal Eyes with each successive
Ask a Certified Ophthalmologist how important the
eyes are, and Normal Eyes in any Collie breeding program… They will
tell you, “It is very important”. I have been told,
by our Board Certified Ophthalmologist that "We have
some of the best in the State", from what he has
Q. What is Collie Eye Anomaly?
A. It is a group
of conditions that appear in conjunction with each
other, and is present prior to birth. The eye is graded as “clear,”
not affected, or as affected, showing signs of the
syndrome listed as follows: Staphyloma, Coloboma, Estasia, Choroidal
Choriorentinal Change, Vascular Disease, Tortuous
Blood Vessels, or Retinal Detachment. CEA is a disease essentially
the scleral and choroidal layers of the eye. The
disease is bilateral, which means it affects both eyes, but not
to the same degree. In it's mildest form, vision is
not impaired, but blindness will occur in its severest form. The
is not progressive, unlike PRA, which means that
whatever the degree of affliction, it will not deteriorate.
It is now
regarded that CEA has four lesions (the 5 lesions
are listed below - Grade 1 no longer has a place on the CERF form),
are as follows:
Grade 1. Torturous retinal
vessels, extremely small areas of choroidal hypoplasia - Choroidal
is the mildest form.
Ophthalmologists no longer have an area to mark "grade 1's". This
will now be marked as "normal", but these collies
will NEVER be able to produce "normal eyed" offspring,
as they are still AFFECTED, just as the "Go
Normals" are still affected.
Grade 2. Torturous retinal vessels,
substantial areas of choroidal hypoplasia -
choroidal hypoplasia in the mildest form - vision is normal and is not a
Choroidal hypoplasia - appears as an
area lateral (temporal) to the optic disc with reduction or absence of
pigment so that the underlying choroidal
vasculature is seen; the choroidal vessels may be reduced in number and
shape; may see underlying white sclera. Once the
retina changes to its adult color (about 3 months of age), the normal
in the retina may mask the changes in the choroid
(so-called "go normal").
Grade 3. Torturous retinal vessels,
substantial areas of Choroidal Hypoplasia with
Colobomas (pits), Staphlomas, or areas of Ectasia in the posterior
Iris Colobomas - holes or abnormal openings in the iris.
Disc Colobomas - pits or irregularities in the optic
disc, the place the optic nerve enters the back of
Staphlomas - abnormal bulging of the rear wall of the
Grade 4. All of the above defects with a Retinal Detachment.
Detachment - Is where the retina becomes detached
from the underlying tissue, at some point or
points, resulting in retina becoming loose, possibly showing signs of
folding or rippling. Vision will be affected and
blindness will occur with a complete detachment. The disease is not
yet it should be said that when a partial
detachment becomes complete, it causes total blindness in an already
Retinal Dysplasia - bilateral (both eyes)
folded or detached retinals.
Grade 5. All of the above defects with
Intra-ocular Hemorrhage, the severest form. This
may result from severe retinal detachment, but it may also occur at any
to a greater or lesser extent within this category.
What does the term "Go Normal" mean in reference
A. "Go normal" is a term used to
describe an affected collie, Grade 1, or Grade 2, in which the area
of choroidal hypoplasia fills in so it appears
normal at later examinations. These animals act genetically like the
collies that they are. They will NEVER produce
"normal eyed" offspring, unless mated with a normal eyed collie.
Royalty Collies puppies are normal eyed. We keep our standing and breeding practices as such to ensure a normal eyed puppy.
Q. What is PRA?
A. Progressive retinal
atrophy is a collective term used to describe a variety of inherited
retinal diseases in dogs. PRA is a term which
describes retinal degeneration resulting in total blindness in both
most common form is Generalized PRA. (Another,
known as CPRA, arises first in the center of the retina. It comes on
in a dog's life. This has not been considered a
threat to the American Collie).
Generalized PRA has proven to be a
recessive in all the breeds studied. Again, this
means that even though the condition is not present at birth, BOTH
must have been involved as carriers or affecteds.
Early signs of the problem may be noticed by the owner as "night
The dog has trouble seeing in dim light. An expert
may detect early signs in the eye at 6 months or younger. By two years,
if the Collie shows no ophthalmoscopic signs, he
may be assumed to be permanently safe from PRA.
Q. What is a
Persistent Pupillary Membrane?
A. The pupillary
membrane covers the pupil prior to birth. It is supposed to be gone by
the time a puppy opens its eyes. Sometimes,
however, it persists. If it resolves within a few weeks, there is
reason to worry. However if it remains, it can
affect vision. PPM can occur in one or both eyes.
PPMs occur in three
Iris-to Iris, Iris-to-Lens and
Iris-to-Cornea. THE FIRST RARELY CAUSES ANY VISUAL PROBLEM. However,
to either the lens or the cornea can result in
opacities at the point of attachment. Those opacities can be blinding.
mode of inheritance for PPM is not know, so the
best course of action is not to breed dogs in which a PPM fails to
If an unaffected animal produces it repeatedly,
particularly with multiple mates, it should no longer be bred.
What are Cataracts?
A. There are several
different types of cateracts, not all of that are hereditary. Hereditary
are thought to be bilateral (both eyes), though the
eyes may develop them at slightly different rates. Nonhereditary
include senile (old age) cataracts and traumatic
cataracts (those caused by an injury to the eye or head). Late-onset
which develop when an animal is 5 to 9 years of
age, are probably not hereditary.
Professionals differ in their
of whether small opacities in the lens that do not
change over time are cataracts or not. A small opacity that remains the
same over 6 months to a year is probably not
Juvenile hereditary cataracts will develop in both eyes,
by the time the dog is two years of age. The lenses
will gradually become more and more opaque until the dog's vision can
be compared to looking through frosted glass -
prominent contrasts in light and shadow can be distinguished and some
noted, but all detail and subtlety of vision is
In most breeeds in which cataracts have been studied, the mode
of inheritance appears to be complex - probably
involving a number of genes - though in Standard Poodles, Old english
and Miniature Schnauzers it might be a simple
Q. Do you have the puppies eyes tested before they
A. A CERF Certification can be requested when money is deposited to hold your puppy. There is a charge for this test and would not be included in the normal cost of your puppy.
All our puppies at Royalty Collies are NORMAL EYED. A CERF test is provided only when breeding normal eyed carrier to normal eyed carrier. Royalty collies is working towards breeding lines where all will be normal eyed non carriers.
Q. What is Hip Dysplasia?
Hip Dysplasia is an abnormality in the development of the hip joint.
Dogs with no genetic predisposition do not develop
Hip Dysplasia. The strongest link to contributing factors other then
predisposition appears to be to rapid growth and
For more information about the Orthopedic Foundation
Animals, visit their website at:
Hip Dysplasia (CHD) is a developmental disorder of the hip that begins
with joint laxity and progresses to
arthritis over a period of several months to years.
It is one of the most common skeletal diseases seen by veterinarians.
The condition is very common in large breed dogs,
but can be seen in any breed.
Multiple genes are involved in the
of Hip Dysplasia, and many other factors influence
its development, including body type, size, growth rate, and nutrition.
Overfeeding, and dietary supplementation for
maximal growth has been shown to increase the incidence of hip Dysplasia
growing, large breed dogs. Conversely the
development of Hip Dysplasia can be delayed, and its severity diminished
growth rate of pups is restricted. The diagnosis of
hip Dysplasia is based on history, physical examination, and
The clinical signs commonly begin
between five to eight months of age or after skeletal maturity. Some
don't have noticeable problems until eight to ten
years of age or older. The onset of signs may appear sudden or gradual.
This variability is due to the individual severity
of the disease as well as pain tolerance of the pet. Most dogs with CHD
are most painful when the hips are extended by
pulling the rear legs back behind the body. Palpation of the hips
joint laxity, although anesthesia may be required
to detect it in some cases. Radiographs are necessary to confirm the
and evaluate the severity of CHD.
animals 24 months of age or older are independently evaluated by three
randomly selected, board-certified veterinary
radiologists from a pool of 20 to 25 consulting radiologists throughout
USA in private practice and academia. Each
radiologist evaluates the animal's hip status considering the breed,
sex, and age.
There are approximately 9 different anatomic areas
of the hip that are evaluated
1. Craniolateral acetabular rim
3. Femoral head (hip ball)
Fovea capitus (normal flattened area on hip ball)
6. Caudal acetabular rim
8. Junction of femoral head and neck
A typical history may include any or all
of the following:
* difficulty or stiffness upon rising
using front legs only and dragging rear
* short stride in rear legs
to exercise or climb stairs
* rear limb lameness
soreness in hips
* waddling rear limb gait
What is Bloat, Torsion. Gastric dilatation-volvulus
A. Bloat is a serious, life threatening disease in dogs.
is actually two conditions that come under the
heading of one syndrome. First there is "simple" bloat or gastric
dilatation; second is bloat with twisting of the
stomach or gastric dilatation and volvulus. Veterinarians use the
GD and GDV to describe these clinically. You could
think of these as two syndromes in which one becomes the other; gastric
dilatation becoming gastric dilatation and
volvulus. So the line between the two is not exactly clear.
* A - Pylorus
* B - Pyloric Antrum
* C -
* D - Fundus
* E - Body
* F - Omentum
due to a number of different and sometimes unknown reasons, the stomach
fills up with air and puts pressure on
the other organs and diaphragm. Filled with air,
the stomach can easily rotate on itself, thus pinching off the blood
Once this rotation (volvulus) occurs and the blood
supply is cut off, the stomach begins to die and the entire blood supply
is disrupted and the animal’s condition begins to
deteriorate very rapidly.
The signs of bloat can be subtle at
first: restlessness being the most likely first
indication of a problem as the distention and pain increases. Drooling,
or gagging (but not vomiting up stomach contents)
will occur and by the time you recognize that your dog's stomach is
you have a serious medical emergency on your hands.
Now a complex chain of physiologic events begins. The blood return to
the heart decreases, cardiac output decreases, and
cardiac arrythmias may follow. Toxins build up in the dying stomach
The liver, pancreas, and upper small bowel may also
be compromised. Shock from low blood pressure and endotoxins rapidly
Sometimes the stomach ruptures, leading to
peritonitis. You need to seek veterinary care immediately!
with Torsion Descriptions
Torsion of the stomach; the organ is greatly enlarged.
2. Torsion of
3. Duodenum displaced to the left.
Hemorrhages on the stomach's surface.
5. The Greater Omnetum
covers the Stomach's surface.
The faster the
distention and/or twisting can be corrected, the better the dog's
of survival. Also, these conditions are extremely
painful! Even with treatment it is estimated that at least 35% of the
with gastric dilatation and volvulus die. Plus
treatment can be extremely costly, usually $500 to over $1000.
a true emergency. If you know or even suspect your
dog has bloat, immediately call your veterinarian or emergency service.
Do not attempt home treatment, but do take the time
to call ahead. While you are transporting the dog, the hospital staff
can prepare for your arrival.
Please do not
insist on accompanying your dog to the treatment area. Well-meaning
are an impediment to efficient care. Someone will
be out to answer your questions as soon as possible, but for now, have
in your veterinarian and wait.
The GDV risk
ratio of a Great Dane is 41.4 times more likely to develop GDV than a
breed dog. It seems the larger the chest cavity of
the animal, the greater the risk of GDV. The following chart lists the
risk ratio for many of the popular breeds of today.
Prevention of GDV is preferable to
treatment. In susceptible breeds, feed two or
three meals daily and discourage rapid eating. Also
regulate the amount of water consumed before, during, and after meals.
Do not allow exercise for two hours after a meal.
As previously mentioned, some owners feel that certain bloodlines are at
greater risk and choose to have gastroplexy
performed as a prophylactic measure. While the genetics of GDV are not
worked out, most breeders and veterinarians feel
there is some degree of heritability. The incidence is closely
to the depth and width of the dog’s chest. Several
different genes from the parents determine these traits. If both
parents have particularly deep chests then it is
highly likely that their offspring will have a deep chest and the
problems that may go with it. This is why in
particular breeds we see a higher incidence in certain lines, most
of that line's particular chest conformation.
Therefore, while prophylactic gastroplexy will probably help an
it makes sense not to breed dogs who are affected
or who are close relatives of those suffering from GDV.
is Grey Collie Syndrome/Cyclic Neutropenia?
taken from: "Grey Collie Syndrome" by Elwood Purcell
-1969 / 1970)
A. First documented in the 1930's
The grey gene is unique in that it fits no where in the "genetic
map" of colors on the color chromosome because it
is NOT a color. It is a symptom of a more complex condition. What would
normally be a sable pup when struck by the grey
gene becomes a grey ranging from pale silver (pure sable) to deeply
grey (mahogany sable) in exactly the same pattern
and ratio as would be expected in normal sables. A tricolor when
becomes a deep charcoal grey with pale grey facial,
leg, and vent markings where tan would normally occur. Eyelids and nose
leather have reduced pigmentation. So the lethal
grey's color and markings obey all the genetic rules of patterned areas
the homozygous merle) and amount of pigmentation
except that ALL color is translated into grey. Cyclic neutropenia, a
disorder where every 10 to 13 days on a regular
cycle, the disease - fighting white blood cells disappear. No reason.
a few days later, the white cells reappear as
mysteriously as they left with the puppy much the worse for the wear
the interim.During an "attack", the puppy will act
listless, depressed, almost sullen. Its temperature will soar
--106-107 degrees are not uncommon in grey puppies
and, after medication, it is not unusual for the pup to have a normal
again in as little as four hours. Breathing becomes
labored as fluid accumulated in the lungs. The puppy whimpers a lot.
swell painfully. The puppy often has horrid, foul
smelling diarrhea. Also, the puppy's gums bleed and the puppy can/will
consciousness with the high fever. Grey Collie
Syndrome is a bone marrow disorder, and most die immediately or within
first 12 months. This is a recessive trait, so BOTH
parents must be carriers in order to produce this, however if one
is a carrier, its children may be carriers.
What is a Double Dilute (DD 'double d')?
A. Double Dilute's
commonly known as DD's are the result of Merle to
Merle breedings (any two Merle dogs, which includes blue Merle,sable
or Merle headed whites). Merling is a pleasing and
interesting pattern of gray (beige, silver, in brown and blue dilutes,
respectively) with black (chocolate, blue)
splotches. The trait is believed to be caused by transposons, small
parasitic type DNA elements. They act like viruses
that affect only the host’s offspring and none other.
parents carry the Merle Gene, there is a good
chance that they will have puppies with the DD syndrome. The DD puppies
look white but instead have an absence of pigment
in their "white" hairs. This is why the DD collies exhibit a more
washed out appearance when compared to the AKC
recognized color headed white collie.
The correct term for a "white"
puppy from a Merle-to-Merle breeding is homozygous
Merle or Double Dilute Merle. They should not be confused with WHITE
(color headed whites). An excellent source of
reference on this subject is, The Collie - A Veterinary Reference for
Breeder by Sharon Lynn Vanderlip, D.V.M. Published
by Biotechnical Veterinary Consultants, 1984. Look in the color Genetics
section for this information.
The Merle Gene is
presumably haploinsufficient, that is if one normal copy of the Gene
doesn't produce enough protein for the cell to work
properly, and then even a loss-of-function allele will be dominant.
if you double up on the Canine Merle Gene you can
create Merle Homozygotes (M M) dogs. Commonly referred to as Double D,
dogs frequently show vision impaired, blindness, no
eyes, hearing and brain defects as well as behavior and health
The Merle Gene seems to be Pleiotropy (many
effects) or a Gene that affects more than one trait simultaneously
being a simple pigmentation Gene. Merle dogs often
have blue or blue-sectored eyes, caused by the same mechanism.
Double D Shepard or Collie has been listed as
extremely rare, unique, all white, special, etc. Though these claims are
fact correct, it is only because the informed
reputable breeder will not sell nor breed this very defective and sick
Q. What is Heart Worm?
A. Heart Worm is a parasite
invasion of a proper host's heart. In the larval stage of
the worm, the infected host's blood swarms with the
Heart Worm microfilariae or larva. A mosquito will ingest the larva
with the host's blood. When the now infected
mosquito host bites other animals after the incubation period, viable
travel from the host mosquito into the bitten
animals. If the animal is a proper host, the microfilariae survive. The
burrows into the dog, and in three to four months
the now adult worm travels to the right side of the heart through a vein
and await the opportunity to reproduce. Adult
heartworms can reach 12 inches in length and can remain in the dog's
several years. Female heartworms bear live young --
thousands of them in a day. These young -- the microfilariae --
in the bloodstream for as long as three years,
waiting to hitch a ride in a bloodsucking mosquito. The worms thrive in
chambers on the right side of the heart, veins
entering the heart, arteries in the lungs, and the liver veins.
signs of Heart Worm may not manifest for a year.
The first sign is a soft cough during exercise which gets worse over
The dog tires easily, begins to lose weight, could
cough up blood, and may even faint when exercised in the later stages of
the infection. The dog becomes a couch potato, not
wanting to play or exercise. Any form of activity leaves the animal weak
and out of breath. If left unchecked, congestive
heart failure ensues, and the once-active, outgoing pet is in grave
At one time, the Heart Worm was a Warm Climate pest. But due
to the nature of Dog Shows and the traveling exhibitor, Heart
Worm now infests animals even into the coldest
climates. Heartworm prevention costs money and requires commitment:
be drawn to examine for signs of infestation before
the preventive drug can be given, and the drug must be administered
whether the daily dose or the once-a-month type is
chosen. But the effort and the money are well-spent to keep a loved pet
from the discomfort and debilitation of the
But there are dangers in various types of Heartworm
for Collies and other herding breeds. Much of the
concern over the safety of ivermectin began when this medication was
tested in dogs for toxicity studies. In the initial
testing of ivermectin, the drug was tested in Beagles to see at what
clinical signs of toxicity would develop. Later,
these same studies were performed on Collies and it was found that
had clinical signs of toxicosis at much lower doses
of ivermectin than the Beagles did. The signs of toxicosis seen in
trials varied in their severity. Early signs of
toxicosis included salivation, dilated pupils, vomiting, tremors, and
walking (ataxia). Severe signs of toxicosis
included weakness, inability to stand (recumbency), non-responsiveness,
and coma. In several of these type of studies,
there were collies that seemed to react to ivermectin, and other collies
did not react to the ivermectin. It has been
suggested that there are collies that are "ivermectin sensitive" and
those that are considered to be "ivermectin
non-sensitive" based on the results of these studies. Unfortunately,
to date, no research has provided us with the
ability to differentiate between the ivermectin-sensitive and
Ivermectin is not considered safe for
collies by most breeders. Although Merck has recently removed its
there are now several cases of toxicity reactions
reported from collies given Ivermectin. There have also been numerous
of sub-clinical toxic reactions from dogs given
Heartgard preventative. It is thought that there may be a wider range of
than indicated by the studies. To be completely
safe, Collies should be given either carbamazine Heartworm preventative
dose), or the monthly Interceptor Heartworm
Ascites is a fluid build up in the abdomen seen in late
of Heartworm Disease. If a blood test or the onset
of symptoms alert owner and veterinarian to the presence of this
parasite, treatment is possible and successful if
the disease has not progressed this far. The first step is to evaluate
dog and treat any secondary problems of heart
failure or liver or kidney insufficiency so that he can withstand the
The next step is to kill the adult worms -- with an
arsenic compound. The drug is administered in two doses each day for
days, followed by several weeks of inactivity to
give the dog's system a chance to absorb the dead worms. Exertion can
the dead worms to dislodge, travel to the lungs,
and cause death. Six weeks after the administration of the drug to kill
adult worms, further treatment to kill the
microfilariae is needed. The dog is dosed daily for a week , then the
is repeated. If microfilariae are still present,
the dose can be increased. Follow-up studies should be done in a year.
What is Kennel cough or Bordetella?
A. When a dog begins to have a
dry or hacking cough, or signs of pneumonia,
these could be the warning signs of Kennel Cough or
Bordetella. Caused by either the Bordetella bronchiseptica or Canine
virus, the infected animal is extremely contagious,
and if left untreated the condition can cause death. Symptoms may
in severity such as;
1. Coughing spasms
3. Thick Nasal Discharge
4. Loss of Appetite
Dogs in stressful situations, such
as over crowding in a kennel, are much more susceptible to becoming
by these pathogens. Other contributors to a dog's
susceptibility are temperature and poor nutritional status. Once a dog
puppy has been infected, their immune system may be
weakened enough to a point where other diseases may also take hold. The
disease will last from 10 to 20 days, but can be
treated with standard antibiotics. Even when the disease has run it's
or been treated, the cough may last for weeks
Q. Demodectic Mange?
A. Canine Demodicosis is commonly
known as Demodectic Mange which is caused by the
Demodex Mite. The mite normally resides in the animals hair follicles in
small numbers. There are two types of Demodectic;
Localized Demodicosis usually occurs in 3 to 10 month old puppies. It
of small patches in which well defined scaly areas
of hair loss occur around the dog's lips, eyes, and/or forelegs. The
type, Generalized or Pustular Demodectic is more
severe and extremely difficult to cure or control. Small patches appear,
in which well defined scaly areas of hair loss
spread rapidly over large areas of the body. This is accompanied by
itching, edema, and bleeding followed by invasion
of bacterial infection. Generalized Demodicosis is caused by a
genetic defect in which the 'T'-cell that normally
controls the mite is weakened or nonexistent, allowing the mite to
in large numbers.
Q. What is a Demodex Mite?
The mites usually spend their entire life on a dog. The female
mite burrows into the skin and lays eggs several
times as she continues burrowing. These tunnels can actually reach the
of several centimeters. After she deposits the
eggs, the female mite dies. In 3-8 days the eggs hatch into larvae which
6 legs. The larvae mature into nymphs which have 8
legs. The nymph then molts into an adult while it is still in the
The adults mate, and the process continues. The
entire life cycle requires 2-3 weeks. The mites prefer to live on the
but will live for several days off of the host in
the environment. In cool moist environments they can live for up to 22
At normal room temperature in a home they will live
from 2 to 6 days. Because of the mite's ability to survive off the
dogs can become infected without ever coming into
direct contact with an infected dog.
Q. What is Dermatomyositis?
Dermatomyositis commonly known as DM, is a systemic autoimmune
(Although the immune system ordinarily recognizes and
destroys infectious organisms and malignant cells,
it may become "confused" and damage the host itself.) Disease
that targets predominately the skin and muscles,
although lung and heart involvement can occur as well. In its most
form, this disease can lead to death and can cause
considerable disability. Also, the development of DM can be the
of the development of internal cancers. It appears
that DM in Collies is an "autosomal dominant with variable expression."
This means: A. Either sex can inherit the disease.
B. Only one parent needs to be a carrier to pass it on to their
C. Afflicted dogs can either show few to no
symptoms, or they can show severe symptoms.
If a litter has just one
affected puppy then one or both parents are DM
carriers. This could mean that at least half of the litter mates will
have the potential for DM even if there are no
symptoms. Unfortunately, there are no tests currently to differentiate
non-afflicted Collies, and those that have the
disease but show no symptoms of it.
first sign of DM is usually a loss of hair on the
bridge of the nose or around the eyes. Lesions and scabby,crusty areas
also develop. The affected areas may at first
appear as a "Bad Sunburn", or be mistaken for "Collie Nose".
The symptoms can progress to the feet, legs and the
tail. Normally, these symptoms are first noticed in an infected dog
8 and 16 week of age, although there are rare cases
of late development appearing in animals 4 - 7 years of age. In Mild
the skin symptoms could sometimes fade away and
never be seen again. While in the more severe cases the dog will have
lesions for life. Muscle disease may develop along
side the skin symptoms. Muscle degeneration is usually first noticed in
the areas around the top of the head and jaw. When
the disease progresses, general atrophy of the major muscles may develop
affecting the neck, shoulder and hip muscles
causing sever pain and weakness inhibiting simple movement.
to diagnose DM simply by looking at the dog! The
visible symptoms described here could be ringworm, Demodectic mange or
of many other skin problems. A biopsy of an active
lesion is the only sure way of a positive diagnosis. DM cannot be
by any other tests or bloodwork. As it is a skin
disease, a Dermatologist would be the best choice to determine the
Yes, there are Dermatologist for animals. A biopsy
could cost around $270. Antibiotics and Pentoxyphylene(a blood thinner)
are commonly used to help control this disease.
What is Sarcoptes scabiei?
A. Sarcoptic mange, also known
as scabies, is caused by a microscopic mite. The
female mite causes the characteristic intense itching as they burrow
the skin to lay their eggs. The eggs hatch in a few
days, develop into adults, and begin laying their own eggs in less than
three weeks. Dogs with scabies dig and bite at
themselves with great ferocity. Their skin reacts with oozing sores, and
infection may set in, requiring treatment with an
antibiotic in addition to treatment for the mites. Unfortunately, the
mange mite can be difficult to find in skin
scrapings, and unless the veterinarian parts the hair and carefully
bare skin for the characteristic pin-point bite
marks, diagnosis is difficult. Furthermore, the presence of a secondary
infection can hamper the search for the mite bite
marks. Telltale signs of sarcoptic mange are crusty ear tips, fierce
and hair loss, particularly on the ears, elbows,
legs, and face in the early stages. Later on, the hair loss spreads
the body. Sarcoptic mange is contagious to canines
and humans. If the dogs share sleeping places or if the infected dog
on beds or furniture, everyone will begin
scratching. It is not unheard of for the family dog to infest the kids,
to infest their playmates, and the playmates to
infest their pets and parents with scabies. Fortunately scabies in
is self-limiting, that is the mite can burrow under
the skin and cause itching, but cannot complete its life cycle on
and dies within a few weeks. Canine skin damaged by
sarcoptic mange and secondary skin infections can take weeks or months
to recover, depending on the scope of the problems.
Frequent medicated baths may be necessary to soothe irritated skin.
damage can mimic that caused by other skin
conditions, including autoimmune diseases, bacterial infections
secondary to flea
allergies, and contact dermatitis, making it
impossible for the pet owner to diagnose with any success.
is Hypothyroidism or Thyroid deficiency?
Hypothyroidism or Thyroid deficiency is when the thyroid gland is not
properly; by not producing a normal level of
thyroid hormones. The lack of proper thyroid hormone production and
results in various physical problems. . This gland
produces and secretes two thyroid hormones that are involved in many
functions; one such function is the control of the
body's basic metabolic rate (oxygen consumption). This condition is
seen in dogs within the range of 4 to 10 years of
age, and in breeds that are medium to large in size. Some of the signs
by hyperthyroid dogs are visually apparent, but
sometimes the dog may not show any outward signs of the illness. Some of
more common visual signs associated with this
1. The dog puts on weight even though he/she is not
increased amounts of food. When the amount of food
is then reduced, he/she doesn't lose the surplus weight.
2. The dog
seeks sources of heat and rarely seems to be
3. The dog doesn't want to exercise, appears
activity around him/her.
4. Noticeable changes
to the coat and skin such as dryness and hair loss. The loss of hair is
commonly seen upon the tail, trunk, thighs and the
5. The skin may become thickened (common on the face and upon
the forehead), and there may be a change in skin
color - it becomes darker due to hyperpigmentation.
Other symptoms of
hypothyroidism are not visually apparent. Lack of
the necessary amounts of thyroid hormones alters the proper function of
organ systems. Females that are still intact may
experience reproductive problems such as abortion, infertility or
to cycle. Intact males can also experience
The only way to find out if the dog is suffering from
must be made through lab tests. It can not be made
based only upon the nonspecific signs discussed above. Discovery of
normal levels of thyroid hormone is critical to the
diagnosis of this disease.
Providing the dog with thyroid
(through pills) is the only way to help bring the
dog back to an improved state of health. This thyroid replacement must
for the remainder of the dog's life. It is because
the thyroid has failed that a supplement must be given. Pills are
two times each and every day. The vet's
instructions must be followed strictly on pill administration; it is so
to continue the therapy even if it appears that the
dog is completely cured. He or she only appears cured. Discontinuation
of hormone replacement will quickly return the dog
to his/her previous untreated and unhealthy condition. The cessation of
treatment will also throw off the test results
necessary to evaluate the pet's state of health, making dosage
Q. What is Vaginal Hyperplacia
Though, not common in the Collie Breed, it can occur. Vaginal
Hyperplasia is a protrusion of vaginal epithelium
during the estrogenic phase of the estrus cycle. To distinguish that
for instance, vaginal prolapse which occurs
following trauma to the pelvic organs or following a difficult birth.
estrus, vaginal tissues becomes hyperplastic and
protrudes through the vulva. The condition results from an exaggeration
the estrogenic response which results in excessive
mucosal folding of the vaginal floor just ahead of the urethral papilla
in such a manner that tissue protrudes through the
vulva labia. Vaginal hyperplasia is most common in large brachycephalic
breeds (short nosed breeds) such as Boxers and
Bostons, although it does occasionally occur in other large and small
The hyperplastic tissue will regress at the end of the heat
cycle but it will return with the next heat, only more extreme
with more tissue protruding each time. And although
the tissue may appear healthy it can become necrotic within hours if
tissue dries and/or is self mutilated. It may be
necessary to place an Elizabethan collar on the dog to prevent self
The protruding tissues should be kept clean and moist. It may
be necessary to amputate the hyperplastic tissue if it becomes
necrotic. Vaginal hyperplasia must be
differentiated from tumors which are not associated with estrus cycles.
The only true
cure is to have the bitch spayed although the
problem can sometimes be controlled with the use of hormones to stop the
from coming into season (not recommended due to
risks from the hormones themselves).
Difficulty results from the
that occurs to the tissue once it is outside the
body. It very quickly becomes dry and can be infected and ulcerated
a period of twelve hours. Usually the condition
occurs on the first estrus cycle and continues to be a problem each time
bitch cycles. On occasion, we may see it again on
the 63rd day, whether she is bred or not.
Q. What is von
Willebrand's Disease (vWD)?
A. In 1925 Erik von
Willebrand, a Finnish physician, recognize vWD in humans. In von
Disease, the dog is missing a substance which helps
the platelets form clots and stabilizes Factor VIII in the clotting
This substance is called "von Willebrand's factor".
Because of the deficient clotting of blood, dogs with von Willebrand's
disease have excessive bleeding upon injury. This
would be similar to hemophilia. Certain breeds have a higher incidence
vWD than others. German Shepherds, Doberman
Pinschers, Shetland Sheepdogs, Chesapeake Bay Retrievers, German
Golden Retrievers, Standard Poodles and Scottish
Terriers all have a higher than normal incidence, showing that it can be
Q. Are your Collies OFA’d?
some of our collies are OFA certified. We will
continue to OFA certify when necessary. Many of the parents and/or
of our Collies have been Hip certified. There is no
history of Hip Dysplasia in any of our lines that we are aware of.
How old does a dog have to be to be Hip certified?
A. Because of the
growth and development in large dogs,
a Collie is required to be at least 2 years old
before they can be hip certified.
Q. What is Collie Nose (Nasal
A. Collie Nose is a
discoloration of the nose pigment diagnosed as Discoid Lupus
thought to be an allergic reaction to sunlight, the
condition is aggravated by prolonged sun exposure. These lighter
areas are sensitive to the sun and can be burned
easily. Sometimes, an owner will tattoo this pink area to help
the possibility of sunburn. Remember to keep your
Collie out of bright sunlight as much as possible if it has this
A small amount of sun screen lotion can be applied
to the affected area to protect it.
Q. What is an Umbilical
A. True Hernia's are where there is a
defect in the body wall. Delayed Closures are where a small bit of
slips out of the area before the umbilicus closes.
For more information on how to differenciate between the different types
of Umbilical Hernia's, check out the Breeder Vet.
Usually if surgery is required, most Vets will wait until the time of
spaying, unless it is an
The greatest health problem that
affects any breed is when we, the breeders, show-breeders, and owners,
only tell what is right with our dogs and not what
is wrong. This will only allow the problems to continue and never be
We at Roalty Collies want you to be informed to ensure healthy, active, disease free collie lines for many many years to come. We know you family pet is as important to you as they are to us.